In junior school it was the ‘slipper’ or ‘plimsol’ across the backside admininistrered by teachers In class. The headmaster/mistress had a leather strap.
In grammar school the headmaster alone had a cane, but teachers used a variety of methods, such as the ruler or plimsol. We had one teacher we called ‘The Knock’ as his method was to wrap you across the back of the head with a nuckle as he walked the rows of desks. Another always carried a textbook in his hand and you were ‘tapped’ on the head with this to regain attention.
At home dad was the ultimate threat used by mother. He would take off his wide leather belt and I would get a slapping with it - if he could catch me. I would leg it down the street and wait till he went on shift at the mine before coming home again.
In RAF apprentices we were never ‘physically’ abused, but always at the butt of the drill instructors by way of shouting, pointless activity like extra bull nights (barrack room cleaning followed by inspections), demeaning in front of collegues (e.g. thanks to you ***** the whole flight will do extra this or that), forced marches or a favourite on Saturday afternoons when we should have been stood for the weekend, falling in on the parade square in uniform A, march at double time around the square, get changed into uniform B, repeat with uniform C, etc all afternoon. More bearable if you took the attitude - it may be raining but if I here all afternoon, then so is the drill instructor. All very character building, or so they said.
You can see why I have no sympathy for today’s crybaby snowflakes and the ‘it won’t plug-n-play so toys out of pram‘ throwers.